1) HIV : HiV -1 and HIV -2 lentivirus 1million people affected.
structure of the HIV virus: Outer envelope Bilipid membrane in which viral antigens .
Inner core bounded by a protein coat containing 3 viral enzyme
Transmission: homosexual, Blood and tissue fluids, contaminated needle and syringes.
Organ and tissue donation, mother to child Transmission.
HIV virus infection target bcell CD + T cell . monocytes through CD4 recepter.
HiV testing monitoring;
HIV antibody and antigen test.Hiv genome detection, HIV drug resistance.
Immune reconstitution inflammatory response
2 ! Respiratory Disease:
Respiratory infection 4.4 million people affected.
1) tuberculosis, bronchitis, lungs abcess, pneumonia, bronchial carcinoma, bronchial adenoma, cough cold acute bronchitis, Chronic bronchitis,
2) bronchial asthma,
investigation x ray , chest HR CT, MRI CBC test .
3 ! Diarrhoea
Diarrhoea is decrease consistency or increase liquid stool ity of stool .
Diarrhoea may be further defined as acute if 2 week Chronic 4 week in duration.diarrhoea may be 3.1 million people affected.
Causes of diarrhoea:
infection:virus , bacterial, parasitic, Bacillus , salmonella ,
investigation: spot specimen.
– occult blood, leucocytes, ova, cyst and parasitic, culture and sensitive,
– Full blood count band different .
– urea and electrolyte,
ESR and C- reactive protein,.
Rigid sigmoidsocopy and biopsy,
plain Abdominal radiography,
History symptoms sign:
age, life, parasitic , dysentery, abdominal tuberculosis, genetic biochemical, abnormality.
size of stool, Chronic bloodydiarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, abdominal distension,Rectal distension, Rectal tenesmus, sense of urgency.
abdominal tenderness, doughy feel, abdominal bruit,mass, anal Abnormality,
HBV infection- in babies born to HBV infection mothore after transfusion of Blood and blood product.
IV drug use.
HDV infection only in HBV infected individual.
Clinical presentation of Hepatitis-B
1) Acute Hepatitis-B
2) acute and subacute liver failure.
Management of Chronic HBV infection:
Replication of the virus must be checked HBE AG positive.
1) health worker.
2) haemodialysis patient and staff.
3) injection drug abused.
5) patient sexual transmission- Disease.
An acute induced by the exotoxin of clostridium tetani and Clinical characterized by muscular rigidity which perisist through illness puncture by painfully spasms of the voluntary muscle.
Cl tetani Gram positive , anarobic spore, bearing organisam, the spore are terminal and give the organisam, a drum sticks appears.
Two type preparation are avible for active immunization.
1) combined vaccine- DPT vaccine.
2) monovalent vaccine
– plain or fluid, toxoid,
– tetanus vaccine , adsorbed.(PTAP. APT)
tetanus affected people 500000 people.affected.
Measles affect people word wide 1 million people.
an acute and high Infection Disease of childhood caused by a specific Virus of the group myxoviruses.it is Clinical characterized. coryza. cough.
secretion of nose throat , respiratory Tract, during problem period early stage rash. 4 day before and 4 day after appear rash.
Host factor: environment fector affected people mostly 6 months and 3 year below children affected.
Treatment; measles vaccine, systemic treatment.
Nutritional vitamin A therapy.given.
malaria is a protozal Disease caused by infectious with parasitic of the plasmodium Transmission to man by certain specie’s of infected female anopheles mosquito.
incubation period: natural infection 12 day infection,
The primary Fever, Cold stage , hot stage, sweating stage,
Microscopic test Blood.
Rapid Diagnosis test.
malarial cantrol pogram,
Tuberculosis is a specific infection Disease, causes by mycobacterium tuberculosis.
The Disease affected lungs and caused pulmonary Tuberculosis . it can affect intestine . meninges, Bones and joint, lymph glad skin and other tissues of the body.
tuberculosis affected all ages developing countries.
tuberculosis is Transmission mainly by droplet infection band droplets nuclei general by sputum positive patient with pulmonary Tuberculosis, to transmit infection.
coughing general the largest number of droplets all sizes the frequency and vigorous of Cough and the ventilator of the environment influence Transmission of infected tuberculosis.
3- to 6 week
The control of tuberculosis
immunization, chemotherapy , examination sputum, CT scan, X ray chest, MRI , Blood test.